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Peroxide bleaching offers distinct advantages beyond good whiteness, as it is economical and flexible to use. 52°Tw are not much sensitive. In the measurements, the fabrics were marked with permanent marker with 35*35 cm gaps (in the direction of wefts and warps) and they were washed in the washing machine at 60°C. These properties directly contributed to the advantages of mercerized textile products (e.g. It is found in such materials as sateens, silkoline, tubsilk, cotton taffeta, linings, dress goods, skirtings, and in embroidery and crochet yarns in its own name. Better covering of dead and/or mossy cotton 6. It has been reported that as far as luster, tensile strength and dimensional stability are concerned, hot mercerization can produce better results than normal mercerization for three reasons. Then padded fabric is squeezed with squeezing roller. The yarn of hank form is placed on the guide rollers whilst they are close together. We observed the best results at the conclusion of the trials again with wet process. In almost every sort of fabric in which silk is used, mercerized cotton is also employed. Mercerizing is done after bleaching operation. These fabrics have medium weights and approximately same construction. Since the shrinkage in the fibers increase as the time period increases, the resistance to shrinkage in the weft appears to be higher. The fabrics were mercerized after the drying process. Steam chamber                  : Accumulation type. Increase transparency and reduce surface roughness. Fig 11: Cellulose, the polymer of cotton, with a degree of polymerisation, About 5000 cellubiose units (i. e. n=5000). Mercerization of cotton fabric with low concentration sodium hydroxide solution at low temperature. In 1890 Horace Lowe was granted a British patent in which he claimed that by applying Mercer’s caustic soda process to cotton yarn or fabric under tension a resultant high luster (a result of the light reflection off the smooth, round surface) was imparted to the fiber. The fabrics leave the recuperator through the nip of a pair of squeeze roller. In the dobby weave, an improvement of 25 – 65% was observed in the direction of the weft as it was observed in plain weave and twill. Finally the rollers are brought close together to facility the removal of stretched yarn. If necessary, the fabric can be considerably overstretched to get improved luster, tensile strength and dimensional stability. The yarn is then impregnated in the through containing caustic soda solution. After the yarn is spun, numerous loose ends of fibers produce from the surface of the yarns. However, flexibility decreases since the links among macromolecule chains, crystallites and fibrils are even stronger. When the fashions dictate a great vogue in silks, then mercerized cotton likewise leaps forward. Advantages of Ammonia mercerization * Less pollution. However, the swelling speed of fiber at low temperatures falls due to the high viscosity of caustic soda. Generally cotton mercerization is conducted in a mercerizing bath containing high concentration of caustic soda or sodium hydroxide solution such as 20-30%. Dye absorption increases with the increasing caustic soda concentration up to 13%. In this type, the fiber untwists and swells which causes the lumen to become rounder. The technical data and the prescription are as follows: Prescription                  : 14.8 g/l Cibacron Blue CR, 5.6 g/l Cibacron Deep Red CD, 12.1 g/l Cibacron yellow CRG, 1 g/l Erkantol AS,     4.8g/l Caustic 48 0Be, 50 g/l Silicate. The more uniform swelling gives, with dyed goods, a more equal appearance. The fabric is entered in the bath of caustic soda solution with two down rollers. The process lye is continually circulated and the temperature and concentration monitored. However, not all shades require the same The axial ratio decrease when a cotton The space required for machine installation is reduced to the minimum and the costs of investment are lower compared with the machine working with chain, If put in line with a continuous washing range, the mercerizing machine does not require any extra maintenance, Excellent results with possibility to adjust the temperature and the concentration of caustic soda as pleased according to the results required, Possibility to adjust the tension of fabric in warp while in weft, during the impregnation the fabric is kept in tension by the compression of rolls, Changes in dimensional stability when considered values for both alkali concentration and temperature were low is very little. The Advantages of Cotton. In commercial mercerization process, the strong NaOH is washed out of cotton by hot water. THE PLAN OF THE TRIALS TO BE APPLIED ON THE FABRICS IN THE MERCERIZATION MACHINE. The fiber starts out as a projecting hollow sheath and each night a new layer of cellulose is laid down on the inside of the sheath until about thirty layers are built up. Humidity                  : (8 ± 2) %. In this test light is The method was developed in the 19th century by John Mercer and H.A. The fabrics that were taken from the rotation station were passed from the prescription and working conditions above in the bleaching machine and they were bleached. relatively circular when mercerised. Pad-batch machine. Moisture regains values are plotted against the corresponding barium activity number. 15.19 Mercerization Uneven mercerisation – Improper tensioning, improper preparation of caustic solution, variation in time and temperature of treatment are the main causes of uneven mercerisation. Besides mercerization, he invented several styles of calico printing and prepared for the first time a sulphonated oil (known as Turkey red oil) ever since used in producing certain fast dyes. The fabric is immersed in the solution for three minutes and then rinsed thoroughly. That’s why we’ve packed as much technical information onto this page as humanly possible. Several other similar types of manipulation are possible, although of interest mainly to the textile manufacturer. This gives a large volume of dilute NaOH solution, which cannot be discharge into the drain for economy and pollution point of view. The improved lustre of mercerised cotton is due to the production of nearly circular cotton fibres under tension. No lye losses occur at changes. This test is done by using a microscope. In a good mercerization machine without chain, the time period required for the full impregnation of fibers with the caustic soda flotte is 12 s for dry fabrics and 20 s for wet fabrics. When goods are mercerized using hot mercerizing liquors, the goods can be stretched to a greater degree than when they are applied cold. The automatic lye control permits the addition of fresh lye, water or recovered lye of 20 to 40 °Bé from recycling. Fixed period                  : After the dyeing, they were held by rotating at the dock for 14 h. After fixing, the fabrics were washed with hot-boiling water and then dried at 120°C. ADVANTAGES OF AMMONIA MERCERISATION. The effect of different mercerization techniques on tactile comfort properties of woven cotton fabric has been studied. Maximum luster is obtained when the tension is just sufficient to bring the material back to its original dimension. Most commonly used concentration is 21-22%. Pad Chain Mercerizing Machine 2.... CARDING Carding is the process in which sliver is formed from lap by carding m/c. In the retention compartment of the DIMENSA the proven chainless principle with lifting top rolls is employed. Mercerized cotton is at the present time a direct competitor of silk in a great number of ways, both as an imitation and as a substitute. Larger dimensional stability of the articles 3. … As in the case of barium activity number, the moisture also increases with decreases in the temperature of mercerization at a given sodium ion concentration. These alterations increase sorption, tensile strength and luster of fibres. Luster and strength of the fabric increases for mercerizing process. If mercerization of material (yarn/fabric) is carried out in grey state i.e. In general, the dried fabrics provide better stability in resistance to shrinkage in the warp, but this difference disappears when we think of the effect of drying. Since by For this reason, full impregnation cannot be obtained. MERCERIZATOIN (FOR LUSTRE) CAN BE CARRIED OUT IN TWO WAYS: By treating the cotton with NaOH solution, allowing it to shrink to the maximum content following by stretching to the original width (if cloth) or length (if yarn in the hank form). If the wash liquor is used in kier boiling the presence of sodium carbonate is an advantage; the only pretreatment necessary is filtration to remove the loose cotton fibers from the solution. There are arrangements of squeezing rollers are guide rollers in each boxes. But it is also used in a great number of so-called silk-mixed fabrics, such as silk-mixed mohair, silk-mixed alpaca, silkmixed woolen and worsted figured goods, silk-mixed worsteds for men’s wear, silk-mixed cottons, and so on. Wetting agent is used in caustic soda solution. See more. Mercerization is a process applied to cotton yarns or fabrics which gives to the cotton fiber a silk-like luster, a somewhat greater strength than that of ordinary cotton, and a greater affinity for dyes. Increases above 27%, tensile strength falls rapidly. (2013) K. Kaushik et al. In present work composite is fabricated using simple hand lay-up technique which involves following steps: 1. Such fabrics are called crepons. but we have some major disadvantages: The all wetting agents are not stable to 25% NaOH. Since 1903 the use of mercerized cotton has increased by leaps and bounds in about the same proportions as silk have increased in American use. Saturation with caustic soda solution of mercerizing strength, preferably under relaxed conditions at the boiling point of the caustic solution. It should not discolor the fiber permanently. These hydroxyl groups form the basis for the high hydrogen bonding and orientation found in the fibers. upon the amount of Ba(OH). It was obtained that shrinkage values on warp direction were greater than those of weft. fabric is washed and neutralised. The washed yarn is treated with .002% H2SO4 to remove alkali. Some of them are: when the grey fabric is mercerized some desizing and scouring takes place Table 7: Results of SPSS analysis related to resistance to shrinkage in the weft (Tests of between-subjects effects). Then the fabric is washed properly with cold water. Weave reports of the fabrics used in this study are shown in Figure 3. Colors may be applied which dye the ordinary cotton faintly while giving the mercerized figures a very full, deep color. Since the shrinkage in the fibers increases as the time period rises, the resistance to shrinkage in the weft appears to be higher. Mercerization, in textiles, a chemical treatment applied to cotton fibres or fabrics to permanently impart a greater affinity for dyes and various chemical finishes. However, when goods are processed under tensions which are too great, dye sorption and affinity are decreased because the internal fiber structure is collapsed. This is achieved by objective selection of the process parameters such as: The thus optimized process provides the best mercerizing effect with savings in lye, water and steam. As the fabric is stretched in warp and filling directions, greater tensions produce greater luster and strength with improved dimensional stability. Lowe (source: Wikipedia). Improving to the touch THE ADVANTAGES OF THIS PROCESS ARE: Effects of the chain mercerization of cotton fabric 14. From the standpoint of yarn construction, the larger the proportion of fibers laying length wise to the yarn (low twist) the better the luster will be. The possible variations in finish may be made even more numerous by the dyeing process. The warps first pass through 2-4 boxes, where they are boiled in a suitable solution of dilute caustic soda and T.R.oil sequestering agent may be used. Not always is the whole fabric mercerized in piece-goods mercerization. The liquor is usually heated by closed steam coils. The machine is suitable to any kind of woven fabric (heavy, light, 100% cotton, linen, blends) High flexibility to treat small and medium fabric batches (production speed up to 35 – 40 mt/ 1’). form is passed through 25% NaOH solution and after a time of 40-45 seconds With the modern textile finishing operations that are applied today, it is possible to provide cotton fiber with a structure similar to the superior properties of synthetic fibers. The properties of the fibre change by swelling. These charges are shown in the following figure. Tensile strength is higher when caustic concentration is 45-54°Tw and temperature is 17°C. It is necessary then that mercerized yarns and fabrics should be signed in order to achieve greatest gloss or luster. If washing is not carried out under tension and the concentration of NaOH remains more than 8% after washing then considerable amount of shrinkage of fabric occur. Considering the cost of cooling to 17 deg C (refrigeration) with only marginal advantages in swelling, mercerization nowadays is carried out at ambient temperatures The dwell time has not under gone any change and remains at around one min (50 Secs.) Hence this is generally preferred. Therefore change over to a lower lye concentration is profitable in addition to the covering of immature cotton. The use of ammonia in mercerization has been known since the 1930’s and was developed commercially for fabric processing around 1970 in what was originally known as the Tedesco process, which was subsequently acquired by the Sanforized company and made well-known as the Sanfor-Set®process.The fashion appeal of so-called “flat-finish” denim resulting … NaOH from the impregnated fabric may be recovered by washing using counter current principle and by using steam in a recuperator. Mercerization machine that has stabilization section after the caustic chamber, chain frame and a 5 final washing chamber.  On the DIMENSA ML the retention zone consists of a chainless reaction compartment only. Its qualities are so excellent, however, that were it not for its value as a silk substitute it would still rank above ordinary cotton in its own right. Mercerized cottons likewise figure largely in upholstery goods, draperies, curtains, and coverings. Textile - Textile - The modern textile industry: Both industrialized and developing countries now have modern installations capable of highly efficient fabric production. After washing they were dried in drum drier and their shrinking percentage values were measured. During the mercerization process, the thread or fabric is tightened and the crystals get into the parallel to the axis of the fiber inside of fiber and consequently, the links among the macromolecule chains (H Bridges, Van Der Wall’s forces) increase even more. Ideally, colour of the dyed cloth is brighter and deeper. The lower lye consumption provides savings in water and steam at lye extraction. Hence the increase in strength takes First, certain improvements were discovered in the methods of mercerizing; and, second, the cost of the needful chemicals had considerably lessened since Mercer’s time. The recuperator consists of a cast iron chamber containing two sets of guide rollers, the top row begin driven. place due to internal swelling. Knitwear fabrics and stable in … Tensile strength increases with increasing caustic soda concentration up to 13%and further slight increases with increasing concentration up to 27%. But In dimension stabilization, what is desired is not high swelling in the fibers, but their homogeneity, because the fibers at the outside of yarns swell more than the fibers at the inside of yarns in mercerization at low temperatures and internal tension emerges as a result of the difference between the swellings inside and outside which has a detrimental effect on stabilization. good lusture property and mercerized effect as the degree of hydophilicity is In dry mercerization, the process is carried out while drying the fabric on a stenter. The cold process under conditions can easily produce no uniformity mercerized fabrics. Tension pulleys are present due to variation of tension. It is frequently used in figured cotton damask tablecloths and napkins. 5% margin of error (95% confidence interval) was taken as a basis in all the calculations and the results that are upper than P=0.050 value do not have an effect that has statistical significance. If maximum tensile strength is to be maintained, it is saber to mercerise before bleaching i.e. Dy. The warps then passed through1-2boxes, containing cold water for cooling and rinsing. Temperature has a great effect on swelling Optimum swelling takes place at around 15 – 20°C (Ideal temperature 15°C). 1. 10th IFATCC congress, Barcelona, may 1975) and referred to by C. Duckworth and L.M. When the fabric leaves the unit it contains the solution of less than 10°Tw strength, which does not shrink the fabric; hence it is released from the width tension of the stenter. Changes in the resistance to shrinkage in the directions of warp and weft in plain weaving fabrics depending on process time period are shown in Figure 4 and 5, respectively. Only some chemicals are required for mercerizing. Keywords: recovery, caustic soda, mercerization, ceramic membrane, combined membrane filtration 1 INTRODUCTION General industrial textile processes consist of 25% solution of NaOH for 40-45 seconds. The cotton also loses up to 25% of its length. As seen in Table 8, 50 – 60% improvement was seen in the direction of warp compared to the raw fabric. relatively circular in mercerized fibre. It was bleached after the rotation period of 6 hour ended. yarns due to sizing. Mercerization is a process in which textiles (typically cotton) are treated with caustic soda (NaOH) solution to improve properties such as fiber strength, shrinkage resistance, luster, and dye affinity. in the fabric thereby becoming denser or fuller. The Iodine test is done using 20 grams iodine in 100 milliliters of a saturated potassium iodide solution. At the time of his invention, he was a chemist in a large calico printing plant. process of mercerisation was developed by John Mercer (UK). Savings of lye, washing water and steam are money for your account. Cellulose-I (natural formation) cannot convert fully into cellulose-II (after mercerization formation). It imports gloss to the fibre, increases its hygroscopicity, strength and improves its dye affinity. In comparison with other mercerizing ranges the small lye volume permits very fast changes in concentration and, therefore, short reduction interruptions. It is cotton yarn or fabric which has been put through a series of processes, primarily to increase luster. For cotton knit dyeing; mercerizing is done before dyeing. Studies on the use of natural fibers as replacement to man-made fiber in fiber-reinforced co mposites have increased and opened up further industrial possibilities. in grey state. by. However, at lower concentration at30°C, the treated cotton does not show any barium absorption, but the moisture regain increases, due to the differences in the molecular size of barium hydroxide and water, Table 11: Moisture regain values of cotton yarn mercerized at different temperature. adds to the tensile strength of the fabric. His name is well known in textile chemistry. without scouring and bleaching after desizing it is called grey mercerization. Increasing of the tensile strength 5. Good results are obtained through proper saturation, sufficient tension and complete washing. Solid colors and intense, resistant to washing, rubbing, light, even after being washed several times. Table 6: Results of SPSS analysis related to resistance to shrinkage in the warp (Tests of between-subjects effects). Hot mercerization has been recommended because cotton is largely hydrophobic, contains varying amounts of sizing materials when woven and, since cold caustic mercerizing solutions are viscous, surface actives are at very low levels. The mercerization of the original embryo or the desizing treatment of the original embryo or the mercerization of the refined cotton, their respective gloss, toughness, chemical activity and affinity for dyes, cannot help us choose the advantages and disadvantages. A series of boxes as many as eighteen are used. Mercerization A third process often used with cotton fibers is mercerization, which changes the physical structure of the cotton fiber and thereby its physical properties and appearance. Effect of Mercerization on Cotton goods in Woven and Knit Dyeing, Higher Production and its Remedies in the Germents Industry, Readymade Garments Export Business in Bangladesh, Social Compliance Manual for CAMIO USA Knitwear Limited, Social Compliance Issues in Apparel Sector, Application of Industrial Engineering in Sewing Floor, Effect of Different Count of Yarn on Grey Fabric Properties, Scope of Fashion Merchandising in Garment Industry in Bangladesh, Planning and Controlling Process of Professional Designer in a Design Studio, Causes of Fabric Wastages in Garment Manufacturing. The process, time period and process time period interactions have a statistically significant effect on the resistance to shrinkage of the warps of the fabrics except for the process time interactions of the dobby weaving fabric. The distance between the two guide rollers can be altered according to the size of hank. By treating the cotton under tension with strong NaOH solution without allowing it to shrink and then washing while still in the stretched condition. Commonly 0.5-1% of wetting agent is used. Also Sick mink appear to rise from the dead in Denmark. Six measurements were done on each sample according to the standard of BS EN 26330 and the average of them was taken. such an extent that sometimes the lumen may even disappears. Due to this, the fabric gains luster. It is an ultimate reference for textile students and professionals. Mercerization is the treatment to improve the dyeing and mechanical properties of cotton fabrics. Greater tension necessary to prevent shrinkage. Mercer, who died in 1866, was therefore in no way benefited by this valuable invention. Ammonia treatment results in a more rounded cotton fiber, which scatters light more, in turn resulting in a luster that is less bright.An additional advantage of ammonia mercerization is the absence of alkaline oxy-cellulose that results with caustic treatments, which is evidenced by strength-losses and dyeing variation. So that the impregnation becomes properly. wrennal (J. soc. Controlled hot stretching following saturation. Mercerized fabric is more suitable than the unmercerized fabric. Then warps are squeezed and pass through3-4boxes containing caustic soda solution of mercerizing strength. for chemical tests. Monaco Mercerized Cotton Crochet Thread It describes textiles in comprehensive. Washing under stretched condition after mercerization is very important. Luster and strength of the fabric increases for mercerizing process. Mercerization is therefore an expensive chemical procedure. prof.k.b.krishna kumar presentation details this presentation has been devided into: introduction advantages of mercerization classification of mercerization what happens during mercerization parameters of mercerization effect of concentration effect of drying effect of teparature effect of tension temparature vs shrinkage shrinkage effects on lustre effects on … As a result mercerizing will be better and luster increases. Ideally for mercerisation we use The commercial possibilities of this discovery were not overlooked. the mercerization is not even due to differential take up of warp and weft Again if the remaining NaOH is not neutralized that will cause harm to human by hydrolyzing of cellulose. The (Caustic Recovery Plant) for recycling of caustic. If the fabric is fully mercerized, the spots will not be evident; on the other hand, if the fabric is not mercerized or of a low degree of mercerization, dark spot will be evident. The squeezing rollers are of 10” in dia, 36”in length and are covered with rubber. Swelling therefore does not take place only on the fabric surface. Mercerization without tension gives no luster and causes a considerable shrinkage. Keywords: Extraction, Hemicellulose, mercerization, Pandanus Odorifer, Retting. Cross section of mercerized cotton fibers becomes larger and assumes perfectly circular forms as shown in Figure 1. mercerization. The causes for carrying out grey mercerization are-. Cotton mercerizing is the most popular operation. During the last three shrinkage proceeds uniformly towards the center and the lumen does not recover its original size. A homogeneous swelling is produced in mercerization at 60°C, but the shrinkage in the fibers changes with the changing of the application time, thus stabilization will also change. Mercerized cotton answers many purposes. Although both of them take place in mercerization, 75% is on linking’s side through the force of pull. No need of padding mangle or chain (stenter). Sometimes the cloth to be mercerized is covered with a paste, leaving the cloth exposed only in certain places in the form of figures. Some advantages of this mercerization over grey (b) Explain the working of multitubular pressure kier with the help of a neat diagram. The fabric advances 5yds in contact with other rollers so that caustic soda can penetrate perfectly in fabric. Merecerization treatment for cotton yarn fibers is very essential process to increase the luster, tensile strength and enhancement their dyability. The cotton also loses up to 25% of its length. Peroxide bleaching offers distinct advantages beyond good whiteness, as it is economical and flexible to use. Mercerisation is an industrial process involving sodium hydroxide for cotton yarns or fabrics to increase the lustre and dyeability. * Higher productivity. Increasing of the lustre 4. The increasing public awareness and sense of social responsibility related to environmental issues have led the textile industry to manufacture products with improved environmental profiles. The yarn rotates in the alkali solution and stretched the guide rollers and at the same time squeezing rollers the yarn to ensure penetration. Explain the effects of mercerization: 2. a. Impregnation is carried out at relayed condition but washing carried out under tension. As seen in Table 7, the P values of plain weave, twill and dobby weave fabrics in the resistance to shrinkage of the weft appeared to be 0.000. Mercerized cotton is sometimes referred to in the crafts as pearl or Pearle cotton. Higher strength is obtained after the process sequence due to: In this study, fabrics, that were woven by using 20/1 Open-end 100% cotton thread and three different weaving pattern, were chosen. this test depends Last, the stitch/tension variable can be easily set at any desired level, which in turn controls the fabric properties. The lye bath has been kept purposely small and under it there is one single lye tank integrated into the machine. Edelstein investigated the effect of temperature on mercerization in the range of 15-43°C. Mercerization reduces fiber diameter, thereby increasing the aspect ratio, which leads to the development of a rough surface topography that results in better fiber-matrix interface adhesion and an increase in mechanical properties. First hot caustic soda can penetrate the fabric and fiber surfaces thoroughly with the result that a greater proportion of the cellulose may be modified. The technical data and prescriptions are as follows: Prescription             : 2.5 g/l Torozym NT, 2 g/l Schnellnetzer KE, 1 g/l, Speed                                    : 70 m/min, Table 2: The properties of the chemicals that were used in removing dressing, Table 3: The properties of the chemicals that were used in the bleaching process, Burner position                   : Vertical – double side, Burner distance                  : 8 mm, pH                                           : 6 – 7, Temperature                       : 60 – 65°C. Synthetic rubber coated padding roller is placed on guide roller, mounted on ball-bearing to avoid any drag of slip of yarn. higher luster, holds more dye, more effectively absorbs perspiration, and tougher under different washing conditions).

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